Hope for the best, fear the worst – Grandma, Gramsci and Youth Work


If you’re looking forward to a chirpy, uplifting post welcoming in the New Year, sorry, you probably need to go elsewhere. Someplace where the present and future seems always to be exciting and amazing.  The UK Youth website might be a good start. The charity, which has now absorbed the National Council for Voluntary Youth Services and Ambition, is full of itself. Preening with corporate confidence under the slogan. ‘We Build Bright Futures’, it claims to be uniquely placed to tackle low levels of social mobility amongst young people. And without pausing for reflective breath, without a hint of embarrassment, it quotes approvingly the government’s approval of its fantastic work. Being awkward I find myself thinking, surely praise from the latest in a line of neoliberal parties from New Labour via the Coalition to the Tories, whose policies have widened social inequality, is at the very least to be treated with a touch more caution.



I can hear some folk muttering, ‘Taylor must have fallen out of bed the wrong way on New Year’s morn, the miserable old soul. Too much alcohol, far too much neoliberal this, neoliberal that, too little in the way of acknowledging the efforts of the youth sector’s leadership, too few thanks to the grassroots’.  In my immediate defence, I can vouch that the Taylor household did not venture out on New Year’s Eve, preferring to consume traditional Lancashire hotpot with mashed carrots and turnip in front of the fire, fueled by only a few glasses of the local red. Indeed we were in bed before midnight, which, I allow, is pretty miserable. Hence, walking the dog on the first day of 2018 found me in sober mood, thinking of a grandma, whose favourite homily was ‘hope for the best, fear the worst’. Now she spoke only in dialect and had never read the dialectics of Antonio Gramsci, but it struck me her message didn’t seem all that different than the Italian Marxist’s argument for ‘optimism of the will, pessimism of the intellect’.



Granted, though, my grandma’s advice is passive, ‘what else can we do but pray for the best?’, whereas Gramsci implies that it’s necessary for us to struggle to achieve the best, ‘what else can we do but act to bring about the best?’ In this context, UK Youth might understandably ask, ‘why are you giving us a hard time? We are ‘doing hope’, doing our best’.

Whilst this is a fair point it begs the question, how are we to understand hope? For twenty years or more hope in its neoliberal guise has been thoroughly individualistic and competitive. New Labour’s version stressed the need for young people to be aspirational. For the Conservatives the emphasis continues to be rooted in a notion of self-improvement via which the young person will deserve to climb the ladder of success. Absent from this way of seeing things is the social, which makes it all the more ironic that the term social mobility has such wide currency.  Thus UK Youth can make the remarkable claim that it can increase young people’s social mobility with apparently no sense of contradiction.

I don’t think it’s out of order to ask UK Youth if it considered the following dilemmas before announcing it was ‘tackling social mobility’? After all youth work is supposed to be a bastion of self-reflective, critical thought and practice?

  1. As touched on above the discourse of social mobility is individualistic, linked to the revived myth of meritocracy – you get what you deserve. It ignores utterly structural constraints on young people’s opportunities, underpinned still by class, gender and race inequality, expressed in poverty, inadequate housing provision etc.
  2. As Patrick Ainley has pointed out, ‘the Tories have dramatically increased social mobility. However, it is general, absolute, DOWNWARD social mobility that has increased, whilst the limited, relative, upward social mobility of the post-war, welfare state period is nowadays so statistically insignificant as to be exceptional.’
  3. Social mobility itself is a deeply problematic concept. It is at odds with social equality and social justice. What does it mean to suggest that a working class young person ought to better themselves? How many young entrepreneurs and vloggers as opposed to care workers and gardeners does society need? On what grounds are these socially crucial working class jobs paid less and given less status? The youth sector hosts many a seminar on becoming a competitive entrepreneur. I’ve yet to see a parallel series of workshops on becoming a cooperative public servant. To paraphrase John McLean, the great Scottish socialist, ‘why not rise with your class, rather than out of it?’

Noam Chomsky Neoliberalism

Of course the issues I’m raising go far beyond UK Youth. They express the way in which neoliberal ideas are the common-sense of our times. Despite the fact that the neoliberal economic model is broken they express the way in which its individualist, ‘dog eat dog’, market-driven ideology has been insinuated deep into the soul of youth work – so much so that is hardly ever questioned. For my part I’ll carry on banging on about its destructive consequences for youth work. I’ll pursue further the way in which it has incorporated and distorted concepts such as empowerment and social justice. That’s my New Year’s resolution, tempered by the recognition that I need a few more jokes.

Let me end with the first part of a proposal from William Bodrick, which has resonance, in my opinion, for youth workers of all persuasions.

We have to be candles,
burning between
hope and despair,
faith and doubt,
life and death,
all the opposites.
That is the disquieting place
where people must always find us.

[Thanks to James Ballantyne for the link to Brodrick]




I’ll Ride With You : In Praise of Human Solidarity

In the wake of decades of ‘look after yourself’ individualism and the increasing fear of others, fuelled  by state and sectarian violence across the globe it is heartening to witness at the height of anxiety this Australian response to the Sydney cafe tragedy.

I'll ride with you


Sydney cafe: Australians say to Muslims “I’ll ride with you”

In an era of so-called individualism the sun shines on collective solidarity!

Over the past few days I’ve been trying to finish off a piece on the Outcomes agenda and Youth Work. At the heart of the Young Foundation’s Framework is an emotionally resilient, self-reliant young person, floating free of social circumstances and social solidarity, who just needs to pull up their own socks. After which all will evidently be well – at least for that particular individual.  At a stroke at least 50 years of a youth work practice, which strove to emphasise the heterogeneous nature of youth is wiped out. It is as if, for example, autonomous work with young women or black young people founded on their shared collective concerns never happened.

Ta to Jean Spence

However my mood was lifted this morning by the sight of photos from Saturday’s sun-drenched Durham Miners’ Gala. There is a connection. Back in 1984 the Community and Youth Workers Union was amongst the first to send from its national conference a message of solidarity to the National Union of Mineworkers. Across the country youth and community workers saw support for the miners as utterly at one with their commitment to an anti-oppressive practice worked out with young people. Thus in Leicestershire and Derbyshire, where I worked during this  period, youth and community workers from the County and City councils, students from the old Scraptoft College, were prominent in the miners’ support groups, collecting food outside supermarkets, standing shoulder to shoulder on picket lines. Some women even enjoyed honorary membership of the miners’ wives groups.

Ta to Jean Spence

Today, whilst the NYA still talks of ‘promoting justice and equal opportunity’ in its Draft Code of Ethics, practice seems overwhelmingly individual in its focus. And indeed workers venturing a collective perspective are all too often silenced. I’m not arguing that practice in the past was at all perfect. We made many mistakes. However our understanding, that the struggle for social justice is a consciously organised collective activity or it is but hot air, needs fresh and open debate.

Ta to Jean Spence

And whilst remembering the pivotal Miners dispute it’s over a year since Malcolm ‘Benny’ Pinnegar, one of the leaders of the Dirty Thirty striking miners in Leicestershire, died. Benny was well-known to and loved by many of us in the area. In the context of this argument he influenced us deeply because he questioned everything. He was that rare specimen, a good listener as well as a passionate orator. He loved an argument, a critical conversation. He was a working class philosopher with an enormous love for life.

I don’t think it is too pretentious to say that our best tribute to Malcolm and thousands of other activists from across the social movements is to keep alive a volatile and vibrant, critical and collective youth work tradition, which is rooted in the global struggle for social justice.

And here’s a tribute to the Dirty Thirty, written and sung by Alan Parry.